All posts by Alma

Alma joined wine.com in 2008 as part of the buying team. A resident of San Francisco, Alma becomes grouchy if she misses a run in Golden Gate Park with her cattle dog or pays too much for a mediocre glass of wine. Her favorite appellations include Burgundy, Alsace and the Russian River and she credits Sancerre with sparking her interest in wine.

Off the Beaten Path: Spanish Finos

Leaving Madrid on a Southbound train, Europe’s highest capital city scales down to scattered suburbs before disappearing entirely. Olive trees step in and take the place of buildings. Beautiful and then monotonous, the scenery is one continuous stream of thousands of olive trees on thousands of white rolling hills. My recent trip to Spain lasted only nine days, just enough time for me to explore Andalucia’s historical treasures and discover the Montilla-Moriles wine region, located 30 km south of Cordoba.

Cordoba itself is famous for its rich history as a Roman city and then a Moorish capital until its reconquest by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1236. Hundreds of years of Moorish rule produced the architectural jewel, the Mezquita. Recognized as a UNESCO world heritage site, the Mezquita is a rare architectural example of two of the worlds greatest religions occupying the same space and time. A single visit allows one to see a 8th century mosque and a 13th century cathedral. Moving to say the least and a bit like meeting a celebrity for history buffs like me.

As usually happens wherever Roman roads lead, vineyards follow. Less famous than it’s popular big brother, Jerez, the Montilla-Moriles region is a collection of small towns connected by the swathes of olive trees and vineyards. The earth here is poor in organic nutrients but high in calcium carbonate, a result of a rich concentration of ancient seashells. In fact, if one looks closely at Cordoba’s many city walls, one see’s hundreds of fino picintact seashells. Calcium carbonate helps retain moisture in this hot, arid region.

First a bit about the word "Sherry." I bring this up because one finds wines from Montilla-Moriles labeled as "Sherries" at restaurants or wine shops. Like "Champagne," true "Sherry" comes only from Jerez region. Jerez employs the Solera process for making its famed wines. Now zip over to Montilla-Morilles which also employs the Solera process. Using similar techniques produces similar wines, these similarities cause them to be lumped together into the "Sherry" category. There are many types of "sherries" but the one explained here is the Fino. Difficult to find and underappreciated, the Fino has escaped the notice of the American market. However, these wonderful wines can forever change one’s notion of what wine tastes like. These are delicate, dry wines, lacking fruity aromas. Instead they display salty and nutty aromas. Fino’s are incredibly popular in Spain and enjoyed with or without food. Given their rarity, I was extremely pleased to find a little time to explore at least one Bodega and see the Fino winemaking process in-person.

We arrived in the white-walled town of Montilla without any plan, map or reservation, risky in a region that enjoys very long siestas. Thankfully, the city provided signs pointing the way to its many Bodegas. We attempted to find the tourist station but gave up after seeing so many signs pointing the way. Getting a bit lost landed us at the door steps of Bodegas Cruz-Conde.

Our guide explained that, unlike Jerez, where the primary grape is the Palomino grape, here the primary grape, Pedro Ximenez, serves as the base for all for all of its wines. While Jerez is situated near the Atlantic, Montilla is about 5 hours inland and experiences very hot and dry conditions. This desert climate relies on a high concentration of calcium carbonate to maintain soil moisture. The vines here are not trellised and grow small and gnarled. With pride, our guide told us that grapes grown here ripen fully in the intense heat and consequently achieve higher sugar levels. This is critical because higher sugar levels allow for higher alcohol levels. So high, in fact, that these wines are not fortified at all at reach and reach fifteen-percent alcohol! This is huge difference from Jerez wines because, in Jerez, the grapes are unable to reach high sugar levels and must be fortified with brandy to increase the alcohol content to roughly fifteen-percent. Consequently, wines from Montilla-Moriles exhibit much lighter bodies and more delicate and subtle aromas.

We were guided into the wine cellar where the wine is barrel aged after fermentation. The barrels were stacked in layers up to 4 barrels high (and go higher where space permits). The ground level layer of barrels is called the "Solera" and derives from the the word "suelo" meaning "floor". The layers stacked on top are the crianzas. The Solera level barrels contain the oldest wine, the next layer up contains slightly younger wine, and so on with each layer. Logically, the youngest wine is found in the barrels stacked at the very top. Wine for bottling is taken from the solera level barrels (the oldest wine) and replenished with wine from the barrels immediately above them (slightly younger wine). Those barrels in turn are replenished with yet younger wine from the barrels stacked on top of them. Thus, younger wine is constantly filtering down to the solera level barrels. Complicated and labor intensive? You bet, but this process allows for uniformity and constant vintage blending. As a visual learner, I really needed to see it in person to appreciate the process. While traditionally unique to Spain (and a handful of other places in Europe), the use of a Solera to blend wine is now appearing in the New World.

But the real magic happens inside the barrel during the blending process. The barrels are only partially filled, creating a large air space. Within that airspace yeast thrives and creates a yellowish veil of "flor" over the surface of the wine. The flor simultaneously shields the wine from the air and imparts the major nutty and salty aromas present in these wines.

So what the heck does a "veil" of yeast on wine look like? Well, thankfully, our guide was ready with a glass-walled barrel so that we could see inside a barrel. Yup, it looks like a layer of yellow muck floating on the wine. Delicious.

So how about a barrel tasting? Because the flor layer protects the wine from the surrounding air, our guide explained, it is critical that the flor be disturbed as little as possible so that once the layer is broken and wine collected, the flor can immediately close over the hole and prevent bacteria from contaminating the wine. To do this our guide showed us a "venencia." The long flexible handle is made of baleen and at the end is a narrow cup (narrow to make a only a tiny hole in the flor). Our guide lined the venenzia up as straight as possible and dipped in and out quickly, then swung the venencia up high and poured its contents into the glass. I took a photo of myself pretending to do the same.

I took a sip and was so pleased to find the characteristic bone-dry, nutty, salty air qualities that make Fino’s so special and unique. These wines may not sound like a wine you might enjoy, but they have a mouthwatering quality about them and unexpected food friendliness that keeps Fino lover’s scouring wine lists to find them.

6th Annual Wine & Spirits Top 100 Wineries Event

09100 wineries plus one 110-pound woman equals one enormous challenge.  Wednesday night oenophiles packed the Galleria at the San Francisco Design Center for the 6th Annual Wine & Spirits Top 100 Wineries event.  I wish I could say I tried everything, but with so many wines, I am ashamed to say that I only scratched the surface.  But, if anyone has ever had crème brûlée, the surface can be pretty sweet.
The event was in full swing by the time I arrived and grabbed my Riedel glass. I swiped a map of the layout and planned my attack.  Knowing that time and body weight, rather than gusto, were going to be my limitations, I decided to try two of every category.  I was able to stick with that plan, more or less, and leave the place sober and content.  Luckily, t he wineries were arranged by category and each category arranged in a logical tasting order.  

One unexpected highlight was disgorging my own bottle of sparkling wine. Movia’s winemaker Alec Kristancic was on hand to show me how.  Movia’s Puro sparkler comes with the lees still in the bottle, so upside down storage is necessary.  I was a bit nervous for my fellow attendees and not sure they knew what I was doing, I sure didn’t.  But all projectiles landed safely in a water bucket and I spilled only a little bit (ok, ok, I did spill some on the table).  I am not sure how I would do this at home because he uses a special tool to rest the cork in while you turn the upside-down bottle slowly.  Once it pops you quickly turn the bottle upright and there you have it!  

In the interests of time and space here are my favorites in several categories:

Sparkling: Schloss Gobelsberg NV Brut Reserve (Austria)

Not only do they make phenomenal Gruner Veltliner still wines, but they also make this sparkling wine made by the traditional méthode champenoise, complete with hand riddling.  The wine is made from 70% Gruner Veltliner and accompanied by Pinot Noir and Riesling.  Subtle aromas of crushed stones and slight citrus notes preceded a disarmingly smooth mouth-feel.

Crisp Whites
: Boutari Santorini 2008 (Greece)

Made with 100% Assyrtiko, Boutari’s Santorini is a steal at around $20.  I really enjoyed the unique aroma.  The rep hit the nail on the head and pinned down the aroma as that of oxidized fruit.  Think of the aroma of an apple or pear that’s been sliced and left out in the air.  I didn’t find it particularly acidic or crisp, but then again, I think it was served a bit warm.  At a cooler temperature I think the acidity would have jumped out a bit more.

Rich Whites
: E. Guigal Condrieu 2007 (France)

This wine does not need any alcohol to be intoxicating. Honeysuckle, orange blossoms and a hint of spiced bread predominated. Weighty without being heavy handed, it’s a luxurious wine.

Pinot Noir
: Louis Jadot Corton-Grèves Grand Cru 2007 (France)

One winemaker for 150 labels?  Yes, Jacques Lardière has the privilege of this Herculean task.  His rep at the event said he exudes energy and passion.  She described how at harvest he is a man possessed and even over the telephone she can hear his anxiousness to get off the phone and get back to work.  And what a marvelous fruit his labor bore. Possessing a gorgeous ruby red color, aromas of tart red fruit and the subtle scent of smoke and cloves hovering in the background. Good thing for Jacques, at the end of his work, he created something worthy of quite contemplation.

Rhone Family
: Delas-Frères Hermitage Marquise de la Tourette 2005 (France)

Hermitage truly is a beast and I mean that as a compliment.   Spicy, tannic and just plain immense, this wine should really come in a bigger bottle.  Black fruit and pepper lead the way to long and sumptuous finish.

Cabernet Family
Henschke Eden Valley Cyril Henschke Cabernet Sauvignon 2005 (Australia)

This was a bit of a preview, as the wine is not yet available.  A phenomenal year for Australian wines, Eden Valley is more known for Riesling than Cabernet.  This particular hillside is planted with old vine Cabernet and small strips of Cabernet Franc and Merlot for blending.  Cassis and pitted black fruit aromas prevailed. Most impressive was the mouth-feel, walking the razor thin edge between elegance and tannic, cellar worthy structure, I loved every second of it.  
Runner-up: Ridge Monte Bello 2005:  Straight-forward and precise.

Port
: Niepoort 1991 Porto Colheita (Portugal)

Simply delightful.  This wine was the life of the party and conveniently located next to the Brix Chocolate table.  Bright red fruit flavors melted away into a rich consistency.  

Sherry: Lustau Jerez-Xérès-Palo Cortado VOS 20 (Spain)

This dry sherry made me wonder why it’s so hard to find them.  Complex and refined, with incredible depth of color and flavor.  It reminded me of the smell of the ocean and perhaps some toasted hazelnuts. 

Wine Education Wednesday: Syrah vs. Shiraz

 Lately I’ve been craving Syrah for two simple reasons: It pairs well with hearty meals and, best of all, it costs much less than other popular varietals. With so many options for wine lovers out there, one question I get from time to time is,  'what is the difference between Syrah and Shiraz?' Answer – Nothing!  In the true spirit of Australian individualism, the Aussies planted Syrah and called it Shiraz.  The two grapes are genetically identical, though in taste profile, you will find some differences.

Since Roman times Syrah has been grown in the a Rhône region of France.  Hence, it is commonly referred to as a Rhône varietal.  Syrah has seen a surge in popularity and is now grown in California, Washington, South America and South Africa. You can find it in just about every region, though those listed are most popular.  Despite these new challengers, I prefer Australian and French Rhône wines.   Syrah from these regions offer intense richness and a full-body.

French Syrah

French Syrah comes from the Rhone Valley, which is divided into the Northern and Southern Rhône.   Northern Rhône wines command a high price and produce some of the most sought after and long-lived Rhône wines.  Northern Rhône wines are made primarily from Syrah, though in some areas a small percentage of white can be blended in. Familiar appellations in the Northern Rhône include: Côte Rotie, Saint-Joseph, Crozes-Hermitage, Hermitage and Cornas.

The Southern Rhône produces much more accessible wines in that they are priced affordably and made for much earlier consumption than Northern Rhône wines, which can take decades to mellow. The freshness of Southern Rhône wines is a result of blending Grenache with Syrah, as well as a myriad of other grapes, including Carignan, Cinsault and Mourvedre.  In fact, Grenache is considered the dominant grape in the Southern Rhône and Syrah is often added to beef up the blend with powerful tannins and flavor (a practice also followed in Australia). Familiar appellations include: Gigondas, Vacqueyras, Côtes du Rhône and Chateauneuf-du-Pape.

Northern Rhône Syrah offers leather and spicy black pepper qualities coupled with intense tannins and a higher natural acidity than its Shiraz brother.  Complex flavors lead to a long wonderful finish worthy of contemplation. Southern Rhone wines, having a smaller percentage of Syrah and different growing conditions, are much softer, though still providing some spicy, earthy notes.

Notable Producers:  E. Guigal, Jean-Luc Columbo, M. Chapoutier, Chateau Beaucastel

Shiraz

Australian wines are booming and winemakers have made huge strides understanding which varietals grow best in each region.  Australian Shiraz is planted in several areas, but the best come from the Barossa, McLaren Vale and Coonwarra (also noted for its Cabernet Sauvignon).  These areas experience high temperatures resulting in very ripe fruit with lower acidity.  The ripe fruit coupled with Australian winemaking techniques create luscious, silky, mouth-filling wines.  The Barossa Valley in particular excels in the Aussie style offering round tannins and dark fruit flavors, accented with chocolate notes. Thirsty yet?

Notable producers:  Penley Estate, Penfolds, Hewitson, Tait, Peter Lehmann

My Picks

Delas St. Esprit Côtes-du-Rhône Rouge 2007 ($9.99). Contains soft tannins with smoky aromas of black pepper and burnt brown sugar.  Pair with roast chicken. A steal at $9.99!


Tait The Ball Buster 2007.  Luscious dark fruit with cocoa nuances.  Pair with steak or roasted lamb.

 

Wrestling with Rieslings – How to Decipher their Labels

Does reading a German Riesling label leave you scratching your head and running for the beer aisle? Too much information on a label can be daunting especially when the words are in German. What the heck does “Kabinett” mean anyway?  Thankfully, there is a method to the madness.   The many designations on the label are designed to be helpful so that you can select something that you will like.  Once you crack the code you can be confident in what you are buying and even (to some extent) what it will taste like. 

The striking purity of flavor is one of many reasons to love Riesling.  As an added bonus, these wines are often very low in alcohol, ranging from 8-11%.  The versatility of Riesling lends it to many winemaking styles.  The wines range from bone dry (no noticeable sweetness) to powerful honey-sweet wines.  This wide range is one of the reasons that the labels contain so much information.

The labels contain 6 types of information:  Winemaker, Quality Level, Region, Village/Vineyard, and Ripeness. 

Winemaker
Typically the largest words on the label indicate the winemaker.  The name may have the word “weingut” next to it.  Weingut is German for “wine-estate.”  Prominent German winemakers you may see are Joh. Jos. Prüm, Dr. Loosen, Selbach Oster, Fritz Haag and Zilliken. 

Quality Level
You will see one of two designations: QbA and QmP

QbA stands for Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiet.  Whew, that’s a mouthful. This simply means the wine is of average quality. The standards for making this wine are relaxed. The prices for these wines are very affordable.  Keep an eye out for QbA wines from the Nahe Region, as these wines often offer outstanding values.

QmP stands for Qualitätswein mit Prädikat.  These are the real beauties of the Riesling world.  In order to label a wine QmP the winemaker must follow specific requirements about where he or she got his grapes and at what level of ripeness the grapes were harvested.  These wines can be pricey but are well worth it; offering a unique experience that most people bypass in favor of more well-known wines.  QmP wines are the hidden treasures of the wine world.

Region
Just as the words Burgundy and Bordeaux conjure images of unparalleled quality and tradition, so too should the words Mosel-Saar-Ruwer and Rheingau. The regions are named after the rivers that run through then.  The Mosel River twists and turns through ravines, meeting up with the Saar and Ruwer rivers along the way, which in turn follow their own courses. The grapes grow on steep terraces overlooking the water. The Rheingau region runs along the Rhine river.  After 2000 years of experimentation, German vintners have proven these regions as the finest. You can tell the difference between Mosel-Saar-Ruwer and Rheingau wines in their taste and by the their bottles. Mosel wines are delicate and mineral-driven, often with a hint of slate. They also come in green bottles. Rheingau wines are fuller bodied, with more petrol notes. These wines come in brown bottles. There are many other regions but these are the finest and best places to start when trying new wines.

Villages & Vineyards
Many times, the label will contain a village name followed by the vineyard the grapes came from.  Unless you have oodles of time on your hands there is no way to learn them all.  Most likely if the wine is pricey and it uses a “village-vineyard” format, it’s a safe bet that the vintner has added the vineyard because it is particularly famous.  Here are some examples: Piesport-Goldtröpfchen and Brauneberger Juffer- Sonnenuhr.  Some labels may only have the village, in those cases, the price tag can be indicative of quality. 

Ripeness
I saved the best for last.  The easiest way to shock and amaze your guests is to actually remember the words indicating the levels of ripeness.  Stated simply, the words listed below indicate how ripe the grapes were at harvest time. Riper grapes were picked later in the growing season, usually all from the same vineyard.  Generally speaking, the riper the grape the sweeter the wine it makes. This fantastic nomenclature allows you to pick the sweetness level you enjoy the most. Although the wines can be very sweet, they are never sickly sweet.  This is because German Rieslings have an intense acidity that balances the sweetness perfectly. I have listed the levels of ripeness in order of driest to sweetest (which is also typically the order of least expensive to most expensive). Note that there are some Spätlese that may seem sweeter than Auslese, depending on the winemaker’s preference of how much grape sugar to convert to alcohol and how much sugar to leave in the wine. 
 
Kabinett – Refreshing and aromatic dry wines. They are picked first from the vineyard.
Spätlese – Typically they have some noticeable sweetness and are picked later.
Auslese – Sweet and full-bodied, these wines can be expensive ($40 and up).  They are harvested later in the season after the grapes have accumulated a substantial amount of sugar and perhaps some noble rot. 
Beerenauslese (BA) – Rare, intensely sweet and very expensive. The labor-intensive winemaking process dictates the high price.
Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA) – The rarest, sweetest and most expensive of all, these wines are made from grapes after they have shriveled on the vine. They are carefully hand picked one berry at a time.  More a nectar than a wine, these wines are only made in exceptional years – you can tell this by the price tag if nothing else!

As for selecting a wine, try at least a couple so you can compare and decide which level of sweetness you enjoy.  The 2007 vintage was exceptional with many wines just bursting with the aroma of fresh apricots.  I would experiment with a couple from 2007 to get started.  My personal picks are Joh. Jos. Prum Riesling Kabinett (2007) and Joh. Jos. Prüm Graacher Himmelreich Auslese (2007).  Enjoy!